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    Campus Charité Mitte: Charitéplatz 1Local address: Luisenstr. 10 (1st floor, room 024)
    10117 Berlin

    Campus Virchow-Klinikum: Augustenburger Platz 1 Local address: Südstraße 3 (groundfloor, room 0.0056)
    13353 Berlin

    Campus Benjamin Franklin: Hindenburgdamm 30Haus V, elevator 13/14 (1st floor)
    12203 Berlin

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Group Foto MITT

Minimally invasive tumor therapies (MITT) Lab

The research portfolio of the MITT Lab comprises basic science, translational, and clinical investigations in interventional oncology dedicated to imaging of liver cancer in the context of loco-regional therapies. Our research projects focus on multimodal image analysis tools and developing imaging biomarkers to visualize and target the susceptibility and tumor response to minimally-invasive tumor therapies (i.e. transarterial chemoembolization, CT-guided brachytherapy) in liver cancer.

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Research priorities

Current research projects of the MITT Lab focus on developing and establishing non-invasive imaging-based biomarkers for the characterization of liver cancer and tumor response to minimally invasive and combination tumor therapies. Such prognostic imaging biomarkers can help organize targeted drug discovery and application in a more personalized manner that will ultimately improve the clinical outcome of patients with liver cancer. 
Current clinical investigations of the MITT Lab focus on intra-arterial therapies and CT-guided high dose-rate brachytherapy of liver malignancies with the goal of defining laboratory and imaging biomarkers for tumor viability and quantifiable alterations during loco-regional therapies. Basic science and translational research projects focus on advanced multimodal image analysis and the development of MRI-based imaging probes. These imaging tools are used to visualize interactions of the tumor and the metabolic and immune microenvironment that mediate the susceptibility and response to therapy.
 

Projects

Figures shows A) T2-weighted MRI and MR spectra of 3D cell cultures of liver cancer cell lines and B) pH maps.
Figures shows A) T2-weighted MRI and MR spectra of 3D cell cultures of liver cancer cell lines and B) pH maps.
Figure adapted from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31582517
Figure adapted from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31582517
Figure shows radiation planning prior to CT-guided brachytherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Figure shows radiation planning prior to CT-guided brachytherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Basic Science

Our current in vitro investigations are designed to identify quantifiable molecular targets of the interaction of liver cancer cells with the local stromal and immune tumor microenvironment. Methodologies comprise quantitative PCR, immunoblots, and traditional and organotypic cell culture models to monitor the identified components of the tumor microenvironment on MRI

Translational science

Under the guidance of the 3R principle, our lab develops molecular MRI tools in animal models for liver cancer including the VX2 rabbit liver tumor model. In previous projects conducted at our partner lab at Yale, pH-specific MR spectroscopy was employed to quantify tumor pH and alterations induced by loco-regional therapy as a marker for therapeutic efficacy. Current investigations comprise the development of immune cell-specific MRI probes that target antigen-presenting cells in the tumor microenvironment to monitor tumor immune evasion. 

Clinical studies

Our clinical research efforts primarily aim at establishing quantifiable imaging biomarkers for liver tumor susceptibility and response to loco-regional therapies. We investigate intra-arterial therapies including transarterial chemoembolization and radioembolization as well as local CT-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy of liver cancer to exploit these loco-regional therapies as conditioning tools of the tumor microenvironment. These effects may provide the rationale for combining loco-regional with emerging immunotherapy based on a variety of synergistic mechanisms. 
In a prospective setting, we analyze the predictive value of the individual immune status for tumor response in patients treated with brachytherapy. We further analyze progression patterns of primary and secondary liver malignancies after brachytherapy to design disease-specific monitoring strategies and investigate the impact of abscopal ablation effects mediated by the immune system. As for intra-arterial therapies, we investigate the predictive value of 3D quantitative image analysis to predict the hepato-pulmonary shunt fraction prior to radioembolization. Such imaging-based biomarkers may potentially narrow down the selection of patients who will undergo angiographic shunt evaluation. 
 

Team MITT Lab

Dr. med. Lynn Jeanette Savic

Team Leader

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Charlie Hamm, MD

Radiology Resident, Research Scientist

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Charlie Hamm
Han Xu, MSc

Doctoral Student

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han-xu
Robin Schmidt

Doctoral Student

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Luzie Dömel

Doctoral Student

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Gesa Doreen Savic

Dentist, Doctoral Student

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Mag. med. vet. Veronika Broukal

Doctoral Student

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Yubei He, MSc

Doctoral Student

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Jonathan Tefera

Doctoral Student

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Yu Liu, MSc

Doctoral Student

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Collaborations

Affiliated Faculty

MITT Lab group photo with Prof. Gebauer and Prof. Günther
MITT Lab group photo with Prof. Gebauer and Prof. Günther
MITT Lab group photo with Prof. Hamm
MITT Lab group photo with Prof. Hamm

Prof. Dr. Bernhard Gebauer
Prof. Gebauer is the vice chair of the Department of Radiology at Charité and the section chief of interventional radiology including the minimally invasive tumor therapies outpatient center at Campus Virchow Klinikum. He is the senior supervisor for doctoral students participating in the Charité – Yale “Rising Star” Research Exchange and the senior clinical and scientific mentor for the MITT Lab team.

Prof. Dr. Rolf W. Günther
Prof. Günther is the former chairman of the Department of Radiology at the University Hospital Aachen in Germany and currently Distinguished Professor in Research & Development of Interventional Radiology at the Charité University Hospital in Berlin. His Foundation for Radiological Sciences provides travel stipends for students participating in the Charité – Yale “Rising Star” Research Exchange and Prof. Günther personally supports the MITT Lab as a senior scientific mentor.

Prof. Dr. Bernd Hamm
Prof. Hamm is the chair of the Department of Radiology at Charité and the director and spokesperson of the CRC1340 “Matrix in Vision”. Prof. Hamm supports the MITT Lab as a senior supervisor and clinical mentor for many incoming doctoral students from abroad and provides mentorship to those participating in CRC subprojects.
 

 

Grants and Awards

  • 2014-15 Rolf W. Günther Foundation for Radiological Science, Scholarship
  • 2015 Molecular Cancer Research Center Berlin, “Annual Recognition Award”
  • 2015 European Society of Radiology, “Rising Star” Travel Award
  • 2015-18 Manfred Lautenschläger Foundation, “Science Excellence“ Award and Scholarship (L.J. Savic)
  • 2017-19 Leopoldina Foundation, Postdoctoral Fellowship (L.J. Savic)
  • 2017-18 Biomedical Education Program (BMEP) Stipendium (I.T. Schobert)
  • 2018-20 SIO Resarch Grant, Co-PI (L.J. Savic)
  • 2019 Reisestipendium der Freunde und Förderer der Charité
  • 2019 Constantin Cope Medical Student Research Award, Society of Interventional Radiology Foundation
  • 2019 Reisestipendium der Berliner Krebsgesellschaft
  • 2019 Berlin Cancer Foundation (Berliner Krebsgesellschaft e.V.), Travel Stipend
  • 2019 SIO “Distinguished Abstract Award”
  • 2019 RSNA “Trainee Research Prize” (L.J. Savic)
  • 2020 Alavi–Mandell Award, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (I.T. Schobert)
  • 2020 ECR “Invest in the youth” stipend
  • 2020-21 Berlin Institutes of Health, “Junior Clinician Scientist” Fellowship (L.J. Savic)
  • 2020-23 China Scholarship Council (CSC) Scholarship (H. Xu)
  • 2021 MD/PhD Thesis Defense „summa cum laude“ (I.T. Schobert)
  • 2021 Guerbet Research Grant "Immunophenotyping in the context of conventional TACE"
  • 2021 Research Grant (Start-up funding) Berliner Krebsgesellschaft e.V. “Molecular MRI biomarkers for the liver tumor microenvironment“
  • Charité - Yale “Rising Star” Doktorandenaustausch

    The “Rising Star” research exchange program is an ongoing trans-atlantic cooperation between the Department of Radiology at the Charité University Hospital in Berlin, Germany and the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging at Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Initiated by Prof. Bernhard Gebauer (Charité) and the former Radiology chairman Prof. Jeff Geschwind (Yale) in 2013, this exchange program was designed to give medical students from Berlin a unique opportunity to work on their doctoral thesis in the U.S. and has already hosted over twenty participants. The participants of the exchange are generously supported by the Rolf W. Günther Foundation for Radiology and Radiological Sciences (www.rwguenther-stiftung.de), which was founded in 2006 by Prof. Rolf W. Günther to support research in different subspecialties within radiology. The program is co-managed by Dr. Julius Chapiro (Co-Director of the Yale Interventional Oncology Lab) and Dr. Lynn Savic (MITT Lab, Charité). Please follow the links for further information.

    https://radiologie.charite.de/studium_lehre/doktorarbeiten/

    https://medicine.yale.edu/lab/radresearch/students/studentexchangeprogram/

    http://www.rwguenther-stiftung.de/index.php

    Publications

    Peer-reviewed articles

    1. Xu H, Schmidt R, Hamm CA, Schober IT, He Y, Böning G, Jonczyk M, Hamm B, Gebauer B, Savic LJ. Comparison of intrahepatic progression patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal liver metastases following CT-guided high dose-rate brachytherapy. Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2021, Vol. 13: 1–14
    2. Schmidt R, Gebauer B, Roderburg C, Torsello GF, Fehrenbach U, Mohr R, Fleckenstein FN, Auer TA, Ardila Pardo GL, Winna W, Pivetta F, Can E,  Tacke F, Hammerich L, Savic LJ. Preliminary Results From A Prospective Study On The Immunological Effects Of Conventional TransarterialChemoembolisation In Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma. RSNA 2021, 2021-SP-12749-RSNA.  
    3. Schobert IT, Savic LJ. Current Trends in Non-Invasive Imaging of Interactions in the Liver Tumor Microenvironment Mediated by Tumor Metabolism. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jul 21;13(15):3645.
    4. Özdirik B, Jost-Brinkmann F, Savic LJ, Mohr R, Tacke F, Ploner CJ, Roderburg C, Müller T. Atezolizumab and bevacizumab-induced encephalitis in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: Case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Jun 18;100(24):e26377.
    5. Collettini F, Brangsch J, Reimann C, Chapiro J, Savic LJ, Buchholz R, Keller S, Hamm B, Goldberg SN, Makowski MR. Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation: Monitoring of Ablation-Induced Macrophage Recruitment in the Periablational Rim Using SPION-Enhanced Macrophage-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Invest Radiol. 2021 Sep 1;56(9):591-598.
    6. Collettini F, Reimann C, Brangsch J, Chapiro J, Savic LJ, Onthank DC, Robinson SP, Karst U, Buchholz R, Keller S, Hamm B, Goldberg SN, Makowski MR. Elastin-specific MRI of extracellular matrix-remodelling following hepatic radiofrequency-ablation in a VX2 liver tumor model. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6814.
    7. Oestmann PM, Wang CJ, Savic LJ, Hamm CA, Stark S, Schobert I, Gebauer B, Schlachter T, Lin M, Weinreb JC, Batra R, Mulligan D, Zhang X, Duncan JS, Chapiro J. Deep learning-assisted differentiation of pathologically proven atypical and typical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) versus non-HCC on contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver [published online ahead of print, 2021 Jan 6]. Eur Radiol. 2021
    8. Savic LJ, Schobert IT, Hamm CA, Adam LC, Hyder F, Coman D. A high-throughput imaging platform to characterize extracellular pH in organotypic three-dimensional in vitro models of liver cancer [published online ahead of print, 2020 Dec 22]. NMR Biomed. 2020 Dec 22:e4465.
    9. Doemel LA, Chapiro J, Laage Gaupp F, Savic LJ, Kucukkaya AS, Petukhova A, Tefera J, Zeevi T, Lin M, Schlachter T, Jaffe A, Strazzabosco M, Patel T, Stein SM. Reliable prediction of survival in advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib: comparing 1D and 3D quantitative tumor response criteria on MRI [published online ahead of print, 2020 Oct 30]. Eur Radiol. 2020
    10. Stark S, Wang C, Savic LJ, Letzen B, Schobert I, Miszczuk M, Murali N, Oestmann P, Gebauer B, Lin M, Duncan J, Schlachter T, Chapiro J. Automated feature quantification of Lipiodol as imaging biomarker to predict therapeutic efficacy of conventional transarterial chemoembolization of liver cancer. Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 22;10(1):18026.
    11. Savic LJ, Chapiro J, Funai E, Bousabarah K, Schobert IT, Isufi E, Geschwind JH, Stark S, He P, Rudek MA, Perez Lozada JC, Ayyagari R, Pollak J, Schlachter T. Prospective study of Lipiodol distribution as an imaging marker for doxorubicin pharmacokinetics during conventional transarterial chemoembolization of liver malignancies [published online ahead of print, 2020 Oct 15]. Eur Radiol. 2020
    12. Borde T, Laage Gaupp F, Geschwind JF, et al. Idarubicin-Loaded ONCOZENE Drug-Eluting Bead Chemoembolization in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model: Investigating Safety, Therapeutic Efficacy, and Effects on Tumor Microenvironment [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 17]. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2020;S1051-0443(20)30365-1.
    13. Savic LJ, Doemel LA, Schobert IT, et al. Molecular MRI of the Immuno-Metabolic Interplay in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model: A Biomarker for Resistance Mechanisms in Tumor-targeted Therapy? [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 7]. Radiology. 2020;200373.
    14. Bousabarah K, Letzen B, Tefera J, et al. Automated detection and delineation of hepatocellular carcinoma on multiphasic contrast-enhanced MRI using deep learning [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 4]. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2020;10.1007/s00261-020-02604-5.
    15. Tefera J, Revzin M, Chapiro J, et al. Fibronodular hepatocellular carcinoma-a new variant of liver cancer: clinical, pathological and radiological correlation [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 19]. J Clin Pathol. 2020;jclinpath-2020-206574.
    16. Schobert I*, Savic LJ*, Chapiro J, Bousabarah K, Chen E, Laage-Gaupp F, et al. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios as Predictors of Tumor Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma after DEB-TACE. European Radiology, 2020 *these authors contributed equally to this work
    17. Özdirik B, Kayser A, Ullrich A, Savic LJ, Reiss M, Tacke F, Wiedenmann B, Jann H, Roderburg C. Primary Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Breast: Case Series and Literature Review. Cancers (Basel) 2020;12(3). 
    18. Savic LJ, Schobert IT, Peters D, Walsh JJ, Laage-Gaupp FM, Hamm CA, Tritz N, Doemel LA, Lin M, Sinusas A, Schlachter T, Duncan JS, Hyder F, Coman D, Chapiro J. Molecular Imaging of Extracellular Tumor pH to Reveal Effects of Locoregional Therapy on Liver Cancer Microenvironment. Clin Cancer Res. 2020;26(2):428-38.
    19. Hamm CA, Beetz NL, Savic LJ, Penzkofer T. [Artificial intelligence and radiomics in MRI-based prostate diagnostics]. Radiologe. 2020;60(1):48-55.
    20. Coman D, Peters DC, Walsh JJ, Savic LJ, Huber S, Sinusas AJ, Lin M, Chapiro J, Constable RT, Rothman DL, Duncan JS, Hyder F. Extracellular pH mapping of liver cancer on a clinical 3T MRI scanner. Magnetic resonance in medicine. 2020;83(5):1553-64.
    21. Miszczuk MA, Chapiro J, Geschwind JH, Thakur V, Nezami N, Laage-Gaupp F, Kulon M, van Breugel JMM, Fereydooni A, Lin M, Savic LJ, Tegel B, Wahlin T, Funai E, Schlachter T. Lipiodol as an Imaging Biomarker of Tumor Response After Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization: Prospective Clinical Validation in Patients with Primary and Secondary Liver Cancer. Transl Oncol. 2020;13(3):100742.
    22. Tegel BR, Huber S, Savic LJ, Lin M, Gebauer B, Pollak J, Chapiro J. Quantification of contrast-uptake as imaging biomarker for disease progression of renal cell carcinoma after tumor ablation. Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987). 2020:284185120909964.
    23. Hamm CA, Wang CJ, Savic LJ, Ferrante M, Schobert I, Schlachter T, Lin M, Duncan JS, Weinreb JC, Chapiro J, Letzen B. Deep learning for liver tumor diagnosis part I: development of a convolutional neural network classifier for multi-phasic MRI. European radiology. 2019;29(7):3338-47.
    24. Wang CJ, Hamm CA, Savic LJ, Ferrante M, Schobert I, Schlachter T, Lin M, Weinreb JC, Duncan JS, Chapiro J, Letzen B. Deep learning for liver tumor diagnosis part II: convolutional neural network interpretation using radiologic imaging features. European radiology. 2019;29(7):3348-57.
    25. Keller S, Chapiro J, Brangsch J, Reimann C, Collettini F, Sack I, Savic LJ, Hamm B, Goldberg SN, Makowski M. Quantitative MRI for Assessment of Treatment Outcomes in a Rabbit VX2 Hepatic Tumor Model. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. 2019.
    26. van Breugel JMM, Geschwind JF, Mirpour S, Savic LJ, Zhang X, Duran R, Lin M, Miszczuk M, Liapi E, Chapiro J. Theranostic application of lipiodol for transarterial chemoembolization in a VX2 rabbit liver tumor model. Theranostics. 2019;9(13):3674-86.
    27. Schobert I, Chapiro J, Nezami N, Hamm CA, Gebauer B, Lin M, Pollak J, Saperstein L, Schlachter T, Savic LJ. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers for (90)Y Distribution on Bremsstrahlung SPECT After Resin-Based Radioembolization. J Nucl Med. 2019;60(8):1066-72.
    28.  Schobert I, Chapiro J, Pucar D, Saperstein L, Savic LJ. Fluorodeoxyglucose PET for Monitoring Response to Embolotherapy (Transarterial Chemoembolization) in Primary and Metastatic Liver Tumors. PET clinics. 2019;14(4):437-45.
    29. Abajian A, Murali N, Savic LJ, Laage-Gaupp FM, Nezami N, Duncan JS, Schlachter T, Lin M, Geschwind JF, Chapiro J. Predicting Treatment Response to Intra-arterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with the Use of Supervised Machine Learning-An Artificial Intelligence Concept. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2018;29(6):850-7.e1.
    30. Abajian A, Murali N, Savic LJ, Laage-Gaupp FM, Nezami N, Duncan JS, Schlachter T, Lin M, Geschwind JF, Chapiro J. Predicting Treatment Response to Image-Guided Therapies Using Machine Learning: An Example for Trans-Arterial Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. 2018(140).
    31. Do Minh D, Chapiro J, Gorodetski B, Huang Q, Liu C, Smolka S, Savic LJ, Wainstejn D, Lin M, Schlachter T, Gebauer B, Geschwind JF. Intra-arterial therapy of neuroendocrine tumour liver metastases: comparing conventional TACE, drug-eluting beads TACE and yttrium-90 radioembolisation as treatment options using a propensity score analysis model. European radiology. 2017;27(12):4995-5005.
    32.  Savic LJ, Chapiro J, Geschwind JF. Science to Practice: Killing Dormant Cells-Is Targeting Autophagy the Key to Complete Tumor Response in Transarterial Chemoembolization? Radiology. 2017;283(3):621-3.
    33. Savic LJ, Chapiro J, Geschwind JH. Intra-arterial embolotherapy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: update and future prospects. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2017;6(1):7-21.
    34. Savic LJ, Chapiro J, Hamm B, Gebauer B, Collettini F. Irreversible Electroporation in Interventional Oncology: Where We Stand and Where We Go. Rofo. 2016;188(8):735-45.
    35. Savic LJ, Chapiro J, Duwe G, Geschwind JF. Targeting glucose metabolism in cancer: new class of agents for loco-regional and systemic therapy of liver cancer and beyond? Hepat Oncol. 2016;3(1):19-28.
    36. Chapiro J, Duran R, Lin M, Schernthaner R, Lesage D, Wang Z, Savic LJ, Geschwind JF. Early survival prediction after intra-arterial therapies: a 3D quantitative MRI assessment of tumour response after TACE or radioembolization of colorectal cancer metastases to the liver. European radiology. 2015;25(7):1993-2003.
    37. Chapiro J, Duran R, Lin M, Werner JD, Wang Z, Schernthaner R, Savic LJ, Lessne ML, Geschwind JF, Hong K. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Assessment of Uterine Fibroid Response after Uterine Artery Embolization Using Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2015;26(5):670-8.e2.
    38. Savic LJ, Lin MD, Duran R, Schernthaner RE, Hamm B, Geschwind JF, Hong K, Chapiro J. Three-dimensional quantitative assessment of lesion response to MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroids. Acad Radiol. 2015;22(9):1199-205.
    39. Schneider T, Huisman TA, Fiehler J, Savic LJ, Yousem DM. Differences in neuroradiology training programs around the world. AJNR American journal of neuroradiology. 2015;36(3):440-4.
    40. Duran R, Chapiro J, Frangakis C, Lin M, Schlachter TR, Schernthaner RE, Wang Z, Savic LJ, Tacher V, Kamel IR, Geschwind JF. Uveal Melanoma Metastatic to the Liver: The Role of Quantitative Volumetric Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging in the Assessment of Early Tumor Response after Transarterial Chemoembolization. Transl Oncol. 2014;7(4):447-55.
    41. Chapiro J, Wood LD, Lin M, Duran R, Cornish T, Lesage D, Charu V, Schernthaner R, Wang Z, Tacher V, Savic LJ, Kamel IR, Geschwind JF. Radiologic-pathologic analysis of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with HCC after TACE: diagnostic accuracy of 3D quantitative image analysis. Radiology. 2014;273(3):746-58.
    42. Chapiro J, Sur S, Savic LJ, Ganapathy-Kanniappan S, Reyes J, Duran R, Thiruganasambandam SC, Moats CR, Lin M, Luo W, Tran PT, Herman JM, Semenza GL, Ewald AJ, Vogelstein B, Geschwind JF. Systemic delivery of microencapsulated 3-bromopyruvate for the therapy of pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20(24):6406-17.

    Books Chapters

    1. Savic LJ, Chapiro J, Geschwind JF. Intra-Arterial Therapy for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. In: Cholangiocarcinoma: from diagnosis to treatment. Ribero D, Pawlik TM, editors. Nova Science Publishers; 2015. p. 475.
    2. Fleckenstein FN, Chapiro J, Savic LJ, Geschwind JF. Conventional Chemoembolization and Chemoembolization with Drug-Eluting Beads: Technique and Future Potential. In: Interventional Oncology – Principles and Practice in Image-Guided Cancer Therapy. Geschwind JF, Soulen MC, editors.: Cambridge Medicine; 2016. ch. 13.
    3. Murali N, Savic LJ, Nezami N, Chapiro J,Geschwind JF. Regional liver directed therapies for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. In: Primary and Metastatic Liver Tumors. Cardona K, Maithel S, editors.: Springer Nature; 2018 
    4. Tefera J, Savic LJ, Gebauer B. Principles of Loco-regional Therapies. Kompendium – Internistische Onkologie. Schmoll HJ, editor. Springer 
    5. Savic LJ, Gebauer B, Ricke J. Brachytherapy. Kompendium – Internistische Onkologie. Schmoll HJ, editor. Springer 
    6. Schobert IT, Gebauer B, Hildebrant B, Ricke J., Savic LJ. Lokoregional Radionuclide Therapy. Kompendium – Internistische Onkologie. Schmoll HJ, editor. Springer